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So what has the rest of the world promised to do about climate change?

So what has the rest of the world promised to do about climate change?

Countries around the globe have made plans called Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to reduce carbon emissions. We take a look at some of the most significant

Saudi Arabia, home of the world’s biggest industrial polluter, the state-owned oil company Aramco, has long been regarded as a climate villain, accused of collaborating with other energy-producing states at international negotiations to water down ambitions and obstruct progress.

Its 2015 NDC set a target of reducing emissions by up to 130 MtCO2e (million tonnes of CO2 equivalent) by 2030 compared with a business-as-usual scenario, a target that many analysts have described as inadequate. Assessing progress towards this modest goal has also proved impossible – the kingdom has not published any official projections of its emissions nor even defined the business-as-usual baseline it is measuring against. Independent assessments have concluded that based on the scant information that is available, the country is not on track to meet its pledge.

Yet under the influence of its young crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman, Saudi Arabia aims to reduce its dependence on oil in the decades ahead in recognition its supplies are not infinite, demand is falling and the world is searching for less destructive alternatives.

To that end, it has announced a slew of environmental initiatives, including plans to generate 50% of the kingdom’s energy from renewables by 2030 and to plant 10bn trees, that have raised hopes it will take a more ambitious plan to Glasgow in November.

In remarks to a state media agency, Prince Mohammed drew a direct link between the climate crisis and the health of Saudi citizens, signalling a potential shift in the Saudi attitude towards environmental issues.

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